In response to this state of affairs, cultural study is on the ascendancy, and to ensure meaningful, appropriate, and practical cultural research, it is necessary that design, measurement, and analysis in cultural science begin on reliable and valid footing. This edited volume collects state-of-the-art, comprehensive, and informative chapters by leading authorities.
Each chapter lucidly conveys in-depth coverage of the most important methodological topics in the field - equivalence and bias, translation, sampling, response style, data analysis, multilevel modeling, and even meta-analysis - and illuminates its subject matter with illustrations from cutting-edge research. Bornstein, Editor, Parenting: Science and Practice "The why, where, who, what, and when involved in the complex dance between culture and psychological research invite many questions.
But the how in this dance - selecting the right methods of inquiry - is absolutely necessary to help interpret what the dance means. Editors David Matsumoto and Fons van de Vijver have compiled a valuable book which will help guide the current generation of culture-oriented psychologists. As co-author of the first relatively comprehensive book in this area Cross-Cultural Research Methods by Brislin, Lonner and Thorndike, , I join many in welcoming this contribution that impressively updates the many advances in methods.
Lonner, Founding and Special Issues Editor, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology "This book responds wonderfully to a long-felt need: a full-length exploration of the broad range of distinctive methodological problems faced by those who wish to undertake cross-cultural studies of psychological issues.
Cross-Cultural Research Methods
Problems are not just identified, a wealth of hands-on advice on how to manage them is also provided. The editors have assembled a panel of many of the best-known methodologists in the field and provided a structure that leads the reader gently toward more productive and thoughtful ways of doing research. This volume should find a place on every cultural researcher's bookshelf. Smith, University of Sussex " Those with the relevant background will appreciate these well-written essays, most of which offer concrete examples from the research literature that allow readers to see how to execute cross-cultural studies with whatever tools the authors describe.
In sum, cross-cultural researchers who use quantitative methods will find the book useful Readers can use this book in its entirety or just read individual chapters. It is a must read for cross-cultural researchers in psychology, and reading it would be a great way to build more knowledge and critical thinking skills for advanced doctoral students and early career professionals who are hoping to contribute to the cross-cultural psychology literature in the future.
It would also be a useful tool for faculty members and researchers who direct a research team or who teach an advanced seminar in cross-cultural psychology.
About David Matsumoto David Matsumoto is an internationally acclaimed author and psychologist. He received his BA from the University of Michigan in with high honors in psychology and Japanese. He subsequently earned his MA and Ph. Matsumoto has studied culture, emotion, social interaction, and communication for 25 years. He is the recipient of many awards and honors in the field of psychology, including being named a G.
Stanley Hall lecturer by the American Psychological Association. He is also editor for the Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. Fons J. He has published more than articles, mainly in the domain of cross-cultural psychology. The most important themes in his work on psychological acculturation and multiculturalism are the domain dependence of acculturation strategies and behaviors, the assessment of acculturation, cultural distance, antecedents and consequences of multiculturalism, and the stability of multiculturalism.
Van de Vijver is one of the most frequently cited cross-cultural psychologists in Europe. He is the current Vice Dean for Research and former Vice Dean for Education of his faculty and Vice Director of Babylon, the interdisciplinary research center for studies of multicultural societies at Tilburg University.
Rating details. Please note that there are websites where you can purchase SPSS with an educational discount e. Many Universities have other ways of providing discounted versions please note that student versions can sometimes be limited in functionality, check the package.
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Please also note that a basic command of the options and functionality in SPSS is necessary, as the course is not an introduction into the program. Participants do not need any advanced knowledge of statistics but it will be helpful if they are familiar with a few basic notions, such as a correlation between variables and statistical significance.
Note, however, that even some of these basic concepts will be re-examined in class especially statistical significance as most people tend to hold incorrect concepts of them. Additional information Product type Courses. Your email address will not be published. Cross-Cultural Research Methods Description Additional information Event Details Reviews 0 Description The course focuses on two main themes conducted by three renowned scholars in their respective fields: Cross-cultural analysis in psychology, at the level of individuals, by Dr.
By sending this form you agree that Hofstede Insights will collect your name and email in order to answer to your request you will not be added to our newsletter list. We can stick to our insistence on the best measure and study only those societies for which a percentage is given. We may have to expand our search enlarge our sample to find enough cases that have such precise information. Or, we can redesign our measure to incorporate descriptions merely in words no census material is available.
Faced with these three choices, most cross-cultural researchers opt to redesign the measure so as to incorporate word descriptions. Word descriptions do convey information about degree, but not as precisely. If the relative frequency of extended families is related to something else, we should be able to see the relationship whether we measure in percentages or words.
A newly designed measure might read something like this : Code extended family households as. If there is a developmental cycle, such as the household splitting up when the third generation reaches a certain age, do not use this category. Use category 3 if the extended family household remains together for a substantial portion of the life-cycle and 2 if the household remains together briefly.
Do not infer absence of extended families from the absence of any discussion of family and household type. The next step is to pre-test this measure. It may turn out that four distinctions are too difficult to apply, so a researcher might want to collapse the scale a little. If we decide to use the scale described above, what do we do when we do get numbers or percentages from the ethnographers for some cases? Most of the time, we can fit those numbers into the word scale. But we might decide to use two scales: a precise one based on numerical measurement percentages , the second a vaguer one based on words C.
Ember et al. The advantage of using two scales is that the more precise quantitative scale should be more strongly related to other variables than the less precise scale, which result would increase confidence in the relationships found. Measuring a concept like the degree to which a society has extended families may not be easy.
But it is not that difficult either, because ethnographers usually attend to basic economic, social, and political features of a society. For instance, few ethnographies contain information that would allow construction of an indicator of rainfall variability, pH of the soil, or number of minutes per day adults spend in housework.
For these types of information, researchers may decide to alter their operational definitions to make use of the data that are available. Some libraries have worldwide climate records. This information can often be linked to ethnography by looking up the nearest weather station in subject category Research and Development, or longitude and latitude in subject category Location of the society. Concepts may be difficult to operationalize for other reasons. They may be quite abstract, like the concepts of community solidarity or the relative status of women. These two are not only abstract, but they deal with information which is not usually discussed in conventional ethnographic topics.
Information relevant to status might be found under discussions of kin group decisions, political decision-making, relationships of people within the household, sexual rights and obligations, how marriages are arranged, etc. Whyte chose 52 very specific variables to assess the status of women. These variables included the degree to which women had political roles, the importance of female gods, how easily women could get divorced, etc.
Whyte found that the various aspects of status did not relate to each other. He concluded that if a researcher wants to discuss status it would be preferable to discuss at least 10 different and independent dimensions of status. Furthermore, when he tested for the possible bias in reporting by male versus female ethnographers Whyte a , he found that whatever bias may exist is more likely to be found in the reporting of more abstract versus more specific matters.
This suggests that codes should be designed to tap very specific aspects of a phenomenon. Researchers can always use a variety of scaling procedures to make specific measures into combined or more general measures, as many have done to measure degree of cultural complexity combining ratings of specific features such as type of subsistence, average size of communities, level of political integration, etc.
When the researcher has measured the variables of interest for all sample cases, he or she is ready to see if the predicted relationship actually exists in the data. After all, there are likely to be exceptions to the predicted relationship.
Do the exceptions invalidate the prediction? How many exceptions would compel a rejection of the hypothesis? It is precisely here that cross-cultural researchers usually resort to statistical tests of significance. Essentially, every statistical result is evaluated in the same objective way. The question is asked: What is the chance that this result is purely accidental, that there is really no association at all between the two variables?
Although some of the mathematical ways of answering this question are rather complicated, the answer always involves a probability value or p-value , the likelihood that the observed result or a stronger one could have occurred by chance. So, if a result has a p-value of less than. A p-value of less than. In a study we did with Burton Pasternak on extended family households Pasternak, C.
Ember and M. Ember , we tested the hypothesis that incompatibility of activity requirements would generally explain why people may choose to live in extended family households. By incompatability of activity requirements we meant that an adult in the household was required to perform two activities in different places at the same time.
A common example for women is childtending and agricultural work in the fields. An example for men is working away from home for wages and having to plow the fields. If the household includes two or more families, i. We decided to read and code ethnography to measure incompatibility requirements first, before we knew what the household form was, and then we subsequently looked up previously published coded data on the presence or absence of extended family households. We decided not to code both variables incompatibility of activity requirements and extended family households ourselves because we did not want our hypothesis to influence our judgments.
The sample investigated was chosen by randomly sampling 60 cultures from the overlap between the HRAF Collection of Ethnography and the Ethnographic Atlas Murdock Even though we were only able to code 23 of the sample societies, the statistical test of the relationship between incompatibility of activity requirements and extended family households was statistically significant. The p value was.
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We were able to predict 11 out of 13 of the societies with extended family households and 8 of the 10 of the societies with independent family households. Why should a probably true relationship have any exceptions? If a theory or hypothesis is really correct, one would presume that all the cases fit.
There are many reasons that one cannot ever expect a perfect result. First, even if a theory is correct about a major cause of what one is attempting to explain, there may still be other causes that have not been investigated. A sample society might be an exception to the predicted relationship, but it might fit the theory if the variables could be measured for a later time period.
Measurement inaccuracy is another source of exceptions, because measurement error is usually random error and random error usually weakens statistical relationships. For example, if some cases in a straight-line relationship are inaccurately measured either too high or too low on even just one variable, those cases will not be located on the line of the relationship.
In addition to its statistical significance, a cross-cultural relationship should also be evaluated with regard to its strength, or the degree to which the dependent variable is predicted statistically. After all, the goal in research is to find strong predictors, not just statistically significant ones. If confidence in an explanation is required, a single cross-cultural test is not enough.
Replications by other researchers using other samples, tests against alternative explanations, and tests using other research strategies are also needed. This may seem tiresome, but good research always gives a cherished theory many chances to fail. Behavior Science Research ; and Carol R.
AltaMira Press, Cross-Cultural Samples and Codes. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. Divale, William T. Ember, Carol R. Marlene Martin. Computerized Concordance of Cross-cultural Samples.
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Cross-Cultural Research Methods, 2nd edition. AltaMira Press. Ember, Melvin. Melvin Ember and Carol R. Ember, Melvin, and Carol R. Lagace, Robert O. Behavior Science Research, Lippert, Julius. The Evolution of Culture. George P. Murdock, trans. New York: Macmillan.
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Murdock, George P. Ethnographic Atlas: A Summary. University of Pittsburgh Press. Also Ethnology Outline of World Cultures, 6th ed. Ford, Alfred E. Hudson, Raymond Kennedy, Leo W. Simmons, John W.